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[XGNews]: The strange quantum effect has finally been proved: it can make matter invisible

The following is the [XGNews]: The strange quantum effect has finally been proved: it can make matter invisible recommended by xgapn.com.

In a new study, scientists have finally confirmed a strange quantum effect predicted decades ago – if a cloud of gas can be made cold enough and dense enough, it can be made invisible. This technology may be used to prevent the loss of information in quantum computers.

▲ researchers use blue laser to detect the increase of gas transparency

Researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of technology use lasers to squeeze and cool the lithium gas to make its density and temperature low enough to reduce light scattering. If the gas can be cooled closer to absolute zero (minus 273.15 degrees Celsius), the gas will be completely invisible.

This strange quantum effect is called Pauli blocking, and this study has become the first concrete example of this quantum mechanical process in history.

What is observed is a very special and simple form of Pauli blocking. Pauli blocking prevents the natural behavior of an atom: scattering light. This is the first time to clearly observe the existence of this effect and shows a new phenomenon in physics.

The researchers say the new technology can be used to turn on luminescence suppression materials to prevent the loss of information in quantum computers. Pauli blocking originated from Pauli exclusion principle, which was first proposed by Wolfgang Pauli, a famous Austrian physicist, in 1925. Pauli assumes that all fermions with the same quantum states – such as protons, neutrons and electrons – cannot exist in the same space.

This is because there are only a limited number of energy states at the quantum level, forcing the electrons in the atom to pile themselves up to form a higher energy level shell and operate in an orbit farther away from the atomic nucleus. According to a paper written by the famous physicist Freeman Dyson in 1967, Pauli blocking can keep the electrons between different atoms at a distance, because without this incompatibility principle, all atoms will collapse and release huge energy.

The Pauli exclusion principle also applies to atoms in gases. Generally, atoms in gas clouds have a large bounce space, which means that even if they may be fermions bound by Pauli’s exclusion principle, there are still enough unoccupied energy levels for their transition; The Pauli exclusion principle does not significantly hinder their movement. When a photon is sent into a relatively warm gas cloud, any atom it collides with can interact with it, absorb the momentum it brings, recoil to different energy levels, and scatter photons.

However, if you cool the gas down, you will see a completely different situation. At this time, the atom loses energy and fills all possible lowest energy levels, forming the so-called “Fermi sea”. These particles are now surrounded by each other and cannot move up to a higher energy level or down to a lower energy level.

The researchers explained that at this time, the particles accumulated in the shell are like the audience in a full concert hall. Even if they are hit, they have nowhere to go. They are so dense that particles can no longer interact with light. The light was blocked by Pauli and had to go straight through.

An atom can absorb the impact of photons and scatter photons only by moving to another “seat”. If other “seats” are occupied, it will no longer be able to absorb the impact and scatter photons. Therefore, the atom becomes transparent.

However, it is very difficult for the atomic cloud to reach this state. This requires not only extremely low temperatures, but also compressing atoms to record densities. This is a delicate task, so after capturing the gas in the atomic trap, the researchers bombarded it with a laser.

In this case, the researchers adjusted the photons in the laser beam to only collide with the atoms moving opposite them, so as to slow down and cool down the atoms. The researchers frozen the lithium gas cloud to 20 micro Kelvin, just above absolute zero. Then they used another tightly focused laser to compress the atoms to a density level of about 1000 trillion atoms per cubic centimeter, setting a new record.

Then, in order to observe the invisibility of ultracold atoms, the researchers shot the third and last laser at the atoms and used a highly sensitive camera to calculate the number of scattered photons. The laser is carefully calibrated so that it does not change the temperature or density of the gas. As predicted by theory, cooled and compressed atoms scatter 38% less light than atoms at room temperature, which makes them significantly darker.

In addition, two independent research teams cooled two other gases, potassium and strontium, which also proved this effect. In the strontium experiment, the researcher Pauli blocked the excited atoms and kept them in the excited state for a longer time. The three papers proving Pauli blocking were published in the November 18 issue of science.

Now, researchers have finally proved the Pauli blocking effect, which is expected to be used to develop materials to inhibit light. This is particularly beneficial to improve the efficiency of quantum computers, because the current quantum computers are hindered by quantum decoherence, that is, the quantum information carried by light will escape into the surrounding environment of the computer.

Whenever we want to control the quantum world, such as quantum computers, we will always encounter the problem of light scattering, which means that information is leaking from quantum computers. Pauli blocking is a way to suppress light scattering and contribute to the theme of controlling the atomic world.

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